Jose Rizal

RIzal is considered as the national hero of the Philippines. He used a peaceful way to help his own Filipino citizens. Using his novels he marked the start of the Philippine Independence.

He was Born in June 19, 1861 in Calamba, Laguna. After three days (june 22) he was baptized in a Catholic Church.

Rizal's father is Don Francisco Mercado (1818-1898), a tenant-farmer of a Dominican-owned hacienda. He is a hardy and independent-minded man, who talked less and worked more.

Dona Teodora Alonso Realonda (1826-1911) was Rizal's mother. She is a remarkable woman, possessing refined culture, literary talent, business ability, and the fortitude of Spartan women.

Doctor - degree of Licentiate in Medicine (in Universidad Central Madrid)

Jose - chosen by his mother who was a devotee of St. Joseph.

Protacio - from Grevacio P. which comes from a Christian Calendar.

Mercado - means market and was adopted by Domigo Lamco in 1731.

Rizal - from the word Ricial (Spanish) which means a field where wheat, cut while still green, sprouts again.

Alonzo - Old surname of his mother.

Y - and

Realonda - used by Dona Teodora from the surname of his godmother based on culture.

Rizal's first sorrow was the death of his younger sister concha. At the age of 3 Rizal began to take part in family prayers. When he was 5 years old, he was able to read haltingly the Spanish family bible. At the age of 8 Rizal wrote his first poem in native language: Sa Aking Mga Kabata.

February 17, 1872 was the day when the GOMBURZA was executed. It inspired Rizal to fight the evils of Spanish tyranny and redeem his oppressed people.

Rizal studied at Ateneo De Manila formerly known as Escuela Pia. During those years in Ateneo he excelled in almost all subjects and won medals. He also wrote many poems and other literary arts between his teenage years.

After studying in Ateneo he went to University of Santo Tomas to study philosophy, a year later he transferred to and took the path of a medical course.

Rizal and his Siblings

1. Saturnina (Neneng) - Oldest of the Rizal Children.

2. Paciano - was a second father to Rizal.

3. Narcisa (Sisa) - a school teacher of Morong.

4. Olimpia (Ypia) - a telegraph operator from Manila.

5. Lucia

6. Maria (Biang)

7. Jose (Pepe) - the greatest Filipino hero and peerless genius.

8. Concepcion (Concha) - died of sickness at the age of 3.

9. Josefa (Panggoy)

10. Trinidad (Trining)

11. Soledad (Choleng) - youngest of the Rizal children.

Rizal's Journey

Rizal decided to complete his studies in Spain. Aside from studying, Rizal has a secret mission that is to observe keenly the life and culture, languages and customs, industries and commerce, and government and laws of the European nations in order to prepare himself in the mighty task of liberating his oppressed people from Spanish tyranny.


The first stop over of Rizal on his way to Spain is Singapore, which he spent for sightseeing the city including its famed Botanical Garden, Buddhist temples, the monument of Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles, the founder of Singapore.

Colombo, Sri Lanka

It was Rizal's journey to Colombo, Sri Lanka that was important for him to improve his knowledge of the French language while on board a French ship, Djemnah.


En route through the Suez Canal, Rizal got off at the Red Sea terminal and was amazed by the impressive moonlight scenery in Suez and was engrossed with the multicultural people and language of the place.

Naples, Italy

Rizal reached Naples, Italy and was briefly astounded by its dynamic citizens and the picturesque wonders of the municipality particularly the Mount Vesuvius and the Castle of St. Telmo.

Marseilles, France

Rizal arrived at France for the first time at Marseilles, where he visited the Chateau d'lf, the fortress famous as the setting for Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo.


He arrived Barcelona, Spain where he met some Filipinos. He also made his first nationalistic essay he wrote abroad, "Amor Patrio" which was later published in Diarong Tagalog He left Barcelona for Madrid, to pursue his medical studies in the Universidad Central de Madrid. He also took courses in Philosophy and Letters and took French, German, and English lessons from private tutors.

Paris, France

On 1883, Rizal visited the French capital of France, where he was fascinated by its architectural wonders ( e.g. Place de la Concorde and the Arch of Triumph). He visited the Leannec Hospital to observe and became an apprentice of Dr. Louis de Weckert to specialized in ophthalmology. He also joined Free Masonry and was impressed with the freedom they enjoyed in openly criticizing the government.


In Heiderlberg, Rizal worked as apprentice of Dr. Otto Becker and was able to visit picturesque spots in the historical city including the Heidelberg Castle and the ancient churches. In Leipzig, he attended lectures in the University of Leipzig and worked on with his mission of enlightening his Filipino brethren with inspiring stories by translating the story of the Swiss independence and some of Hans Christian Andersen's Fairy Tales to Filipino. In Dresden, he met Dr. Adolph Meyer and was impressed for the first time of the spirituality of a Catholic Holy Mass. In Berlin, Rizal was captivated by its scientific atmosphere and absence of racial discrimination. He wrote the Tagalog Metrical Art (Taglische Verkunst) and published Noli Me Tangere. In Leitmeritz, Bohemia, Rizal bonded with his close friend and professor, Ferdinand Blumentritt.

Czech Republic

In Prague, he met Dr. Willkomm from the University of Prague who toured him to the city's historic spots including the tomb of Copernicus and the National History Museum.


In Vienna, Rizal was met by a famous European novelist, Norfenfals, who toured him to the churches, art galleries, and other tourists spots in the city especially along the Danube Rivera. In Salzburg, Rizal enjoyed the baroque architecture of the old town.


Rizal went to Munich and enjoyed its famous beer, to Nuremberg to see its doll factory and Ulm to see the biggest cathedral in all of Germany.


Rizal saw Rhein falls, the largest plain waterfall in Europe and head towards other Swiss cities Basel, Bern, and Lausanne. Rizal was particularly fascinated with Geneva where the people speak French, German, and Italian.


Rizal toured the Italy's famous cities namely Milan, Venice and Florence, known for their arts and culture. He also visited the Vatican in Rome and was particularly overwhelmed by St. Peter's Church.

Hong Kong

Frustrated of the lack of progress of the reforms he was pushing through, Rizal went to this British colony and stayed in the house of Jose Maria Basa.


Rizal stayed in the house of Juan Lecaroz and observed a botanical garden.


Rizal stayed in Grand Hotel in Tokyo and observed the discipline and customs of the Japanese people.

United States

Rizal toured the US in 1888 which included San Francisco, California; Reno, Nevada; Ogden, Provo and Salt Lake City in Utah; Denver, Colorado, Farmington, Connecticut; Nebraska; Chicago, Illinois; and finally, Alabany in New York City.

United Kingdom

From New York City, Rizal went to Liverpool and then London, England as he started to conceptualize a continuation of his first novel. While contributing writings and essays calling for reforms in La Solidaridad, Rizal moved back and forth in England, France and Belgium during which he also wrote his second novel, El Filibusterismo. In June 1892, on board the ship Don Juan, he travelled back to the Philippines from Hong Kong, which culminated the travel story of Jose Rizal abroad.


Back in the Philippines, Rizal's travel destinations in the Philippines included a visit to Bulacan and Pampanga before he was finally exiled in Dapitan, in the province of Zamboanga del Norte. Rizal was brought back to Fort Santiago where he spent his last days until his execution.

He wrote Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo as a way to inspire his fellow filipinos to fight against spain. With these two books he was able to change the country's future. Together with these he wrote many other literatures which is mostly for the sake of his own country.

Noli Me Tangere

Rizal dedicated this book was dedicated to his own country

El Filibusterismo

Rizal dedicated this book to the three priests: GOMBURZA.

December 30, 1896, Rizal was shot by a firing squad in Bagumbayan. Then later on was secretly buried in Paco Cemetery in manila with no identification on his grave.